Oriental rugs are made from sheep wool, cotton and silk. Most rugs have a pile of pure wool, while the more expensive rugs are entirely or partial made of silk. Sometimes they also use goat hair and camel wool in nomadic rugs.
The sheep wool used in Persian rugs originated from the mountain areas and the Persian and Anatolian plateaus.
For Oriental rugs produced in Nepal, Pakistan and India they also often use New Zealand wool. This wool is often named “Merino wool”.
A good quality of wool has to be long, lustrous and with a high content of lanoline. Most desired is the wool from the spring cutting. An especially fine quality of wool comes from the sheep’s neck, and is called cork wool.
COTTON & SILK
Cotton is used for the base weave to strengthen and stabilize the rug. Sometimes silk is also used as base weave pile and pattern. The most exclusive Persian rugs are typically made of silk. Tthese rugs have a knot density of more than 1.00.000 knots per sqm.
HAND WOVEN YARN
Wool, cotton and silk is carded and spun into yarn, followed by the coloring. Hand spun yarn receives a more varied color scheme compared to the machine spun yarn.